A networking resource devoted to biological soil crusts and the researchers who study them. We will provide a means for international scientists to communicate, share their research, share important news and announcements, ask questions and find collaborators. We will also provide a space for informal writing on research, opinion, and ideas (now seeking posters!).

Saturday, August 4, 2012

Why mosses can grow in the desert, and why their future is uncertain


Readers of this blog won't be so surprised, but most people are unaware that mosses grow in deserts and semiarid zones. The reason they can do so is that desert mosses are dessication tolerators, meaning they are capable of drying without dying. While dry, they are in a state of suspended animation, simply waiting for the next hydration period so that biological activity - and hopefully - net photosynthesis can occur. They rehydrate literally in seconds, and are immediately active. You could measure their respiration right away, for example. I always tell people that this is somewhat like spilling a glass of water on Tutankhamun, resulting in him coming back to life. A pretty cool party trick in my opinion. Biocrust organisms in general do this, but it is perhaps most dramatic in the mosses. Here's a video posted by Casey Allen of a simulated rain event.





And another from a class led by Larry Macafee at Badlands National Park. Focus is a little fuzzy, but you can see individual plants hydrating.



Neat trick for sure, but it does come with costs. Biocrust organisms do not regulate water loss with stomates (pores which a plant can open and close to regulate the rate of carbon coming in and water going out), so they lose that water they gained passively due to simply evaporation. They hang onto water very similarly to a piece of a paper towel - soaking it up via contact and losing it to evaporation. Every dry down event is thought to damage membrane integrity a little bit, so that the first order of business when rehydrating is maintenance. Many researchers have shown that upon rehydration there is a period of net respiration, and that after the photosynthetic rate may exceed the respiration rate, resulting in positive carbon uptake. If that happens growth is possible. But if that net photosynthetic threshold is not reached, the hydration event has resulted in carbon loss, and therefore dry mass loss. In other words the mosses would be shrinking a tiny bit rather than growing....bad news. So you can imagine that short hydration events due to small rain events or just high temperature driving fast evaporation, could damage mosses. Further, many such events could even kill them. So nature's tough guys have an Achilles heel, and seem to straddle a knife edge of survival. The climate is changing: what if increased temperatures or altered frequency or magnitude of rain events decrease hydration times? These mosses seem vulnerable to catastrophe.

Recent papers, including an awesome one by Reed et al. in Nature Climate Change, have induced rapid changes in biocrust community composition as a function of experimental climate change manipulations in a 5 year experiment. They induced a 2 degree C warming using infrared lamps in the field in Utah. This is a modest warming effect compared to multi-GCM projections for the area. They crossed this warming effect with a watering treatment which doubled the frequency of rain events but only slightly increased the total amount of rainfall. It's not surprising to me that this had an effect....but what is surprising is that the authors induced a 90% moss mortality in only 1 year!.

Moss dieback in response to increased frequency of small summer rainfall events (Zelikova et al. 2012)

Mosses fail to attain net photosynthesis when experiencing 1.25 mm rain events, contrasting with a 5 mm rain event (Reed et al. 2012).


This effect was essentially exclusively driven by the watering frequency treatment. The group also tracked effects rippling through the entire community. Under the high frequency summer rain treatment, cyanobacterial cover apparently expanded filling the gap left by the mosses, but pigment concentrations suggest that biomass was declining (Zelikova et al. 2012). Meanwhile bacteria and fungi were in decline (Zelikova et al. 2012), and enzyme signatures suggested that decomposition rates were faster under the frequent watering regime. In addition, changes were induced to nitrogen cycling, including increased nitrfication and a shift from an ammonium to a possibly leakier nitrate dominated regime.

Unlike temperature projections, precipitation projections from climate models are notoriously variable. Therefore, we don't know if climate changes will induce this utter tanking of biocrusts and their function. It is a plausible scenario, however,  that the summer monsoon in the Colorado Plateau region would bring a higher frequency of storms. This is exactly what we don't want. Not only would we lose soil fertility, but biocrusts would be less able to aggregate soils and prevent dust emissions which could go on to affect Western US water supplies (see previous post).

I should point out that this simulated climate change scenario is not necessarily the most plausible in all drylands, and the apparent indifference of biocrusts to warming may also not be universal. These studies from Utah, contrast nicely with another study which shows a clear negative effect of 2 - 4 degree C warming on lichen-dominated biocrusts in Spain (Escolar et al. in press).

Escolar C, Maestre FT, Martínez, I, Bowke, MA 2012. Warming reduces the growth and diversity of lichen dominated biological soil crusts in a semi-arid environment: implications for ecosystem structure and function. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: in press.

Zelikova TJ, Houseman DC, Grote EE, Neher DA, Belnap J. 2012. Warming and increased precipitation frequency on the Colorado Plateau: implications for biological soil crusts and soil processes. Plant & Soil DOI 10.1007/s11104-011-1097-z

Reed SC, Coe KK, Sparks JP, Houseman DC, Zelikova, TJ, Belnap J (2012). Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility. Nature Climate Change DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1596 ResearchBlogging.org

sciseekclaimtoken-501f4fb235cdc

22 comments:

  1. Very interesting article and experiments. I use to often do this as a kid on dried mosses which even in 100+ degree heat in chaparral country look dead and lifless.

    I'm curious though about the water quality and chemical signature of the water itself. In those areas in monssonal season, water from Lightning storms has unique superior properties that even winter rainy reason water doesn't have. If they used tap water from their canteens or plastic water bottles there are any number of contaminants such as chlorine, BPAs etc.

    Also the physics structure of water molecules is more loosely bonded from a lightning storm event as opposed to just winter water falling from the sky minus the lightning. The electrical conductivity does what science-based chemicals used as wetting agents do, they break the bond of heavily clustered water molecule clusters. But Lightning simply does it without chemicals. Instead of water molecule cluster bonds of 70 to 90 molecules to a cluster you may have 5, 6, 7 or 8 to a cluster. Such loosely bonded tinier structures more readily infiltrate and rehydrade anything it comes in contact with.

    I don't want to write an article here, but there are ere even energetic electrical charges given off by these smaller clusters which form interesting hexagonal crystaline stracture shapes which give off a faint negative electrical charge which excites growth in plants even without any fertilizers added. Having lived and observed plant growth effects from monsoon rains for 24 years I can attest to this unique phenomena. If it's evident in large plant organism than clearly there must be an effect on smaller ones as well.


    Again enjoyed you posts.



    -

    ReplyDelete
  2. Oops, missed this comment. I didn't find where they stated it anywhere, but knowing that lab I'm pretty sure they would have used de-ionized water. I'd not thought about the different properties of water in an electrical summer storm compared to an, e.g. winter front. Interesting idea. Any literature on the plant response?

    Maybe one of the authors will weigh in on this....

    ReplyDelete
  3. Testimony On How My Life was Transformed (Lexieloancompany@yahoo.com)..

    I am writing this Testimony because am really grateful for what Martinez Lexie did for me and my family, when I thought there was no hope he came and make my family feel alive again by lending us loan at a very low interest rate of 2%. Well I have been searching for a loan to settle my debts for the past three months all I met scammed and took my money total 6,500usd until I finally met a God sent Lender. I never thought that there are still genuine loan lenders on the internet but to my greatest surprise i got my loan without wasting much time so if you are out there looking for a loan of any kind for business or other purposes i would advise you to email Mr Martinez via: ( Lexieloancompany@yahoo.com ) or through the Company website: http://lexieloans.bravesites.com OR text: +18168926958 and be free of internet scams. thanks… Jenny Hills CA, United State


    ReplyDelete
  4. I have being hearing about this blank ATM card for a while and i never really paid any interest to it because of my doubts. Until one day i discovered a hacking guy called Engineer Micharel, he is really good at what he is doing. Back to the point, I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. If it works or even Exist. He told me Yes and that its a card programmed for random money withdraws without being noticed or cut and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. This was shocking and i still had my doubts. Then i gave it a try and asked for the card and agreed to their terms and conditions and sending it through DHL. Hoping and praying it was not fake. One week later i received my card and tried with the closest ATM machine close to me, It worked like magic. I was able to withdraw up to $6000 at the spot. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life with my girlfriend Laurer. So far i have being able to withdraw up to $78000 without any stress of being caught. I don't know why i am posting this here, i just felt this might help those of us in need of financial stability. blank ATM has really change my life. If you want to contact Him, Here is the email (micharelatmhacker@gmail.com). and text him +18508008129 And I believe He will also Change your life.

    ReplyDelete
  5. I have my ATM card already programmed to withdraw the maximum of $ 5,000 a day for a maximum of 20 days. I'm so happy with this because I got mine last week and I've used it to get $ 104,000. Mr Martins is giving the card just to help the poor and needy even though it is illegal but it is something nice and it is not like another scam pretending to have the ATM cards blank. And no one gets caught when using the card. Get yours today. Just send an email to martinshackers22@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  6. We have a direct genuine provider for BG/SBLC specifically for lease, at leasing price of 4+2 of face value, Issuance by HSBC London/Hong Kong or any other AA rated Bank in Europe, Middle East or USA.

    Contact : Mr. Johnson Hatton
    Email:johnsonhatton@gmail.com
    Skype ID: johnson.hatton007

    Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All inquires to Mr. Johnson Hatton should include the following minimum information so I can quickly address your needs:

    Complete contact information:
    What exactly do you need?
    How long do you need it for?
    Are you a principal borrower or a broker?

    Contact me for more details.

    Johnson Hatton

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Ahmad Asnul Brunei, I contacted Mr Osman Loan Firm for a business loan amount of $250,000, Then i was told about the step of approving my requested loan amount, after taking the risk again because i was so much desperate of setting up a business to my greatest surprise, the loan amount was credited to my bank account within 24 banking hours without any stress of getting my loan. I was surprise because i was first fall a victim of scam! If you are interested of securing any loan amount & you are located in any country, I'll advise you can contact Mr Osman Loan Firm via email osmanloanserves@gmail.com

    LOAN APPLICATION INFORMATION FORM
    First name......
    Middle name.....
    2) Gender:.........
    3) Loan Amount Needed:.........
    4) Loan Duration:.........
    5) Country:.........
    6) Home Address:.........
    7) Mobile Number:.........
    8) Email address..........
    9) Monthly Income:.....................
    10) Occupation:...........................
    11)Which site did you here about us.....................
    Thanks and Best Regards.
    Derek Email osmanloanserves@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  8. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Ahmad Asnul Brunei, I contacted Mr Osman Loan Firm for a business loan amount of $250,000, Then i was told about the step of approving my requested loan amount, after taking the risk again because i was so much desperate of setting up a business to my greatest surprise, the loan amount was credited to my bank account within 24 banking hours without any stress of getting my loan. I was surprise because i was first fall a victim of scam! If you are interested of securing any loan amount & you are located in any country, I'll advise you can contact Mr Osman Loan Firm via email osmanloanserves@gmail.com

    LOAN APPLICATION INFORMATION FORM
    First name......
    Middle name.....
    2) Gender:.........
    3) Loan Amount Needed:.........
    4) Loan Duration:.........
    5) Country:.........
    6) Home Address:.........
    7) Mobile Number:.........
    8) Email address..........
    9) Monthly Income:.....................
    10) Occupation:...........................
    11)Which site did you here about us.....................
    Thanks and Best Regards.
    Derek Email osmanloanserves@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. Hello ,
    Am Mrs Cynthia corvin . Am a lady with a great testimony I live in USA and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of $360,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a mother with 2 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of $360,000.0.Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs cynthia corvin, that refer you to him. contact Mr.Zak,via email:- feroozsuptoo@outlook.com

    ReplyDelete
  10. Are you an individual businessman or a business organisation that wishes to expand in business ??, we offer financial instrument such as BGs, SBLCs,MTNs, LCs, CDs and others on lease and sales at a rate of 4%+2% of the face value and reasonable conditionfrom a genuine provider. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs as well as in signatory project(s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication and any other project(s) etc.

    Email:~ inquiry.firstchoice@gmail.com
    admin@firstchoicefinancing.co.uk
    Skype ID:contact.firstchoice

    With our financial/bank instrument you can establish line of credit with your bank and/or secure loan for your projects in which our bank instrument will serve collateral in your bank to fund your project.

    We deliver with time and precision as set forth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable and we work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this instrument can be monetized on your behalf for upto 100% funding. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request.

    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!

    If Interested kindly contact me via

    Email:~ inquiry.firstchoice@gmail.com
    admin@firstchoicefinancing.co.uk
    Skype ID:contact.firstchoice

    serious enquiry only.

    Genuine Provider for BG/SBLC(Bank Guarantee/Standby Letter of Credit)

    ReplyDelete
  11. BE SMART AND BECOME RICH IN LESS THAN 3 DAYS....It all depends on how fast you can be to get the new PROGRAMMED blank ATM card that is capable of hacking into any ATM machine, anywhere in the world. I got to know about this BLANK ATM CARD when I was searching for job online about a month ago.. It has really changed my life for good and now I can say I'm rich and I can never be poor again. The least money I get in a month with it is about $50,000.(fifty thousand USD). Everyday I keep pumping money into my account. Though it is illegal, there is no risk of being caught, because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable, it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV's to detect you.. For details on how to get yours today, email the hackers on: johnhart0022@gmail.com. Tell your loved ones too, and start to live large. That's the simple testimony of how my life changed for good... Love you all... The email address again is johnhart0022@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  12. UEFA Champions League - Final Tickets

    REAL MADRID VS JUVENTUS

    Principality Stadium (Millennium Stadium), Cardiff, United Kingdom
    Saturday, June 03 2017 19:45


    In this year's Champions League Final we'll see two football dynamos facing it off until the last minute - what a match it will be! The tension's building and you want to be part of it. Look no further and secure your Champions League Final tickets right here right now. 1st Stop Ticketing is Europe's leading ticket exchange and the safest marketplace for you and your Champions League tickets. Have a browse on our Champions League Final 2017 tickets below and grab them fast!


    Section: Category 1

    Section: Cardiff Castle

    Section: Category 1 | Row L30

    Section: Category 1 | Row U9

    Section: Category 1 | Row U10

    Section: VIP Gold

    Contact us for price

    E-mail : booking@1ststopticketing.com

    Contact Person: MR TREVOR ROY SIMPSON

    ReplyDelete
  13. My Brothers and Sister all over the world, I am Mrs Boo Wheat from Canada ; i was in need of loan some month ago. i needed a loan to open my restaurant and bar, when one of my long time business partner introduce me to this good and trustful loan lender DR PURVA PIUS that help me out with a loan, and is interest rate is very low , thank God today. I am now a successful business woman, and I became useful. In the life of others, I now hold a restaurant and bar. And about 30 workers, thank GOD for my life I am leaving well today a happy father with three kids, thanks to you DR PURVA PIUS Now I can take care of my lovely family, i can now pay my bill. I am now the bread winner of my family. If you are look for a trustful and reliable loan leader. You can Email him via,mail (urgentloan22@gmail.com) Please tell him Mrs Boo Wheat from Canada introduce you to him. THANKS

    ReplyDelete
  14. The only genuine ATM cloned card vendor which i have tested and confirmed. I met this hacker online and emailed him about the BLANK ATM CARD. I was in trouble financially two weeks ago so i told him i need one asap. I western union some money to him and to my greatest shock, the card was shipped to me in 24 hrs. I've used it to withdraw $ 44,000 already, $ 4000 daily . Since then I've been able to get money freely with no pin. Contact their email if you truly need this card. (martinshackers22@gmail.com , martinshackers22@gmail.com)....THIS IS REAL.

    ReplyDelete
  15. We have provided over $1 Billion in business loans to over 15,000 business owners just like you. We use our own designated risk technology to provide you with the right business loan so you can grow your business. Our services are fast and reliable, loans are approved within 72 hours of successful application. We offer loans from a minimum range of $5000 to a maximum of $20 million.

    - Complete Name:
    - Loan amount needed:
    - Loan Duration:
    - Purpose of loan:
    - City / Country:
    - Telephone:
    - How Did You Hear About Us:
    Have You Applied Before?...
    With Best Regards.
    Mrs. Magaret Becklas
    Emaill: anatiliatextileltd@gmail.com
    Emaill: bdsfn.com@gmail.com

    We have provided over $1 Billion in business loans to over 15,000 business owners just like you. We use our own designated risk technology to provide you with the right business loan so you can grow your business. Our services are fast and reliable, loans are approved within 72 hours of successful application. We offer loans from a minimum range of $5000 to a maximum of $20 million.

    - Complete Name:
    - Loan amount needed:
    - Loan Duration:
    - Purpose of loan:
    - City / Country:
    - Telephone:
    - How Did You Hear About Us:
    Have You Applied Before?...
    With Best Regards.
    Mrs. Magaret Becklas
    Emaill: anatiliatextileltd@gmail.com
    Emaill: bdsfn.com@gmail.com

    We have provided over $1 Billion in business loans to over 15,000 business owners just like you. We use our own designated risk technology to provide you with the right business loan so you can grow your business. Our services are fast and reliable, loans are approved within 72 hours of successful application. We offer loans from a minimum range of $5000 to a maximum of $20 million.

    - Complete Name:
    - Loan amount needed:
    - Loan Duration:
    - Purpose of loan:
    - City / Country:
    - Telephone:
    - How Did You Hear About Us:
    Have You Applied Before?...
    With Best Regards.
    Mrs. Magaret Becklas
    Emaill: anatiliatextileltd@gmail.com
    Emaill: bdsfn.com@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  16. Davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com is indeed the right place to get your blank ATM card. Much has been said about this company which i saw online about their reliability and certified services am reaffirming this because i have tested them too and they are trusted. I got my card 4 days ago and it took just 2 days for it to be delivered to me after i made all necessary payments. If you are tired of wasting your money an time on fake companies then davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com is the right place

    ReplyDelete
  17. We are Providers of all types of BG and SBLC with the best workable procedures. Our BG/SBLC ranges from MT799, MT760,(Both two way confirmation), MT103/23, MT103 (Both can be one way confirmation and two way confirmation) in USD and EUROS. Issuing Bank ranges from Top world 25 banks with face value ranging from 1M EUROS/USD to 5B EUROS/USD

    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!
    Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and cases to our attention and in complete confidence we will work together for the benefits of all parties involve

    For further details contact us with the below information Thank you.

    Contact : Mr. SIVAJOTHI GNANATHEEVAM
    Email: leasingmandate@gmail.com
    Skype ID: leasingmandate

    ReplyDelete
  18. I have been hearing about BLANK ATM CARD i never know it exist but until i tried my best to look for how i will get money to start up a business and pay my bills, i visited facebook and some other sites so many times. I saw how people get helped with Blank ATM card from Hacking man called Engineer GREGRY. he said he can hack cellphones and Blank ATM and others devices, so I inquired about The Blank ATM Card. I have the faith is real and it will work because i saw many comments talking about his card. He told me Yes and that it is a card programmed for random or random money withdraws without being noticed and can also be used for free online purchases of any kind. i was amaze. after doing what he ask, 3 days later i received my card from DHL with my pin, i rush to try it on the closest ATM machine close to me, It worked like magic i was so happy. I was able to withdraw up to $6000 immediately. This was unbelievable and the happiest day of my life, So far i have being able to withdraw up to $48000 without any stress of being trace and caught. I don't know why i am posting this here but i care about everyone who need financial help should contact him he is the best and kind, please don't fall in other peoples hands who will take your money and not give you card. you can text him +13869516900 or email: (onlineatmhacker@yahoo.com). He can help you too. My name is Scholes. please Thank him for me he is so great.

    Gmial: onlineatmhacker@gmail.com

    Yahoomail: onlineatmhacker@yahoo.com

    cellphone: +13869516900

    ReplyDelete
  19. David Benjamin ATM company is indeed a wonderful place to be. For the past 6 months i have been paying money to several companies just to get me a loaded card and all have scammed me of my money without any delivery. I was told by a friend who got her card in less than 4 days of her applying to contact davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com and lo and behold i was told to make a delivery payment and part payment for the card balance when i receive the card and must have tested it. Am proud to announce to any one in need of a genuine hacker who is tired of loosing money to rippers to contact : davidbenjaminltd@outlook.com and get you card without any story telling.

    ReplyDelete
  20. INSTEAD OF GETTING A LOAN,, I GOT SOMETHING NEW
    Get $5,500 USD every day, for six months!

    See how it works
    Do you know you can hack into any ATM machine with a hacked Atm card??
    Make up you mind before applying, straight deal...

    Order for a blank Atm card now and get millions within a week!: contact us
    gmail: onlineatmhacker@gmail.com
    yahoomail: onlineatmhacker@yahoo.com
    cellphone: +13869516900

    We have specially programmed ATM cards that can be use to hack ATM
    machines, the ATM cards can be used to withdraw at the ATM or swipe, at
    stores and POS. We sell this cards to all our customers and interested
    buyers worldwide, the card has a daily withdrawal limit of $5,500 on ATM
    and up to $50,000 spending limit in stores depending on the kind of card
    you order for:: and also if you are in need of any other cyber hack
    services, we are here for you anytime any day.

    Here is our price lists for the ATM CARDS:

    Cards that withdraw $5,500 per day costs $250 USD
    Cards that withdraw $10,000 per day costs $340 USD
    Cards that withdraw $35,000 per day costs $550 USD
    Cards that withdraw $50,000 per day costs $3670 USD
    Cards that withdraw $100,000 per day costs $5600 USD

    Have all details for login and i can transfer balance to your account
    if you want.
    200$ = Balance 3000$
    300$ = Balance 6000$
    500$ = Balance 9000$
    800$ = Balance 15000$

    Easily Flip Your money,turn hundred to thousand

    $200 into $3000
    $350 into $3500
    $400 into $4000
    $500 into $5000
    $600 into $6000
    $700 into $7000
    $1000 into $10,000
    We flip to you buy western union,money gram,direct to your account.......

    WE ALSO BUY AND SELL BITCOIN AND ITUNES GIFT CARD AT SAME RATE......

    MY CONTACT INFOS..

    gmail: onlineatmhacker@gmail.com
    yahoomail: onlineatmhacker@yahoo.com
    cellphone: +13869516900
    Hope to hear from you soon !!

    ReplyDelete
  21. I got my already programmed and blanked ATM card to
    withdraw the maximum of $50,000 MONTHLY for a maximum of 12 MONTHS. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week
    and I have used it to get $150,000 already. Georg Bednorz Hackers is giving
    out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it
    is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending
    to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when
    using the card. get yours from Georg Bednorz Hackers today! Just send an email
    to georgbednorzhackers@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  22. MAKE EASY MONEY IN AN EASY WAY now by becoming your own BOSS. MR ROLAND LEO is my NAME We are in the business of making others rich within the shortest period of time.
    Come get your BLANK ATM CARD today and be among the lucky ones.
    This PROGRAMMED ATM CARD is capable of hacking into any ATM machine anywhere in the world. This BLANK ATM CARD has really changed many lives financially to finance their business and build a better home and now I can say you are RICH AGAIN. The least money I get in a day with it is about $3,000. Every now and then I keeping pumping money into my account. Though is illegal,there is no risk of being caught, because it has been programmed in such a way that it is not traceable, it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you..For details on how to get yours today, email the hackers on : (ericmarkatm616@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete